How can frozen tuna be thawed to still taste good?

In order to maintain the quality of tuna, when it is caught in the sea, the ikejime technique is used first, then rapid freezing is used as a matter of course. This means that the quality of the thawing technique is also important. Poor thawing conditions means that the drip outflow volume will be too high, shrinking the meat and worsening the texture. Here I will explain a thawing method that doesn’t cause drip, uneven thawing, or loss of color.

What exactly is drip anyway?

I’m sure you’ve seen it before in any type of thawing frozen meat, but there is a red liquid that comes out of the tuna when thawing. This is called ‘drip’. This liquid includes the tuna’s umami, and when the fish loses a lot, it naturally detracts from the flavor.

First of all, we will explain the worst thawing methods. Never thaw naturally at room temperature or in the microwave. These are common methods at home, but they are out of the question.

Next we will explain the general method of thawing.

  1. Mix 30 g of salt with 1000 cc of warm water at 40℃ to create a saltwater mixture.
  2. Place the frozen block of tuna in this 40℃ saltwater, submerge for one to two minutes and then drain the water.
  3. Wash any remaining salt off the surface of the block of fish with freshwater and remove moisture from the surface with paper towels.
  4. Wrap the fish in clean paper towels, wrap with plastic over that and leave it in the refrigerator for about a day to thaw naturally.
  5. Cut from the block directly before consuming.

Now for the thawing method used by professionals, such as sushi chefs.

The first three steps are the same as the general thawing method above.

  1. Place block in an air-tight plastic bag. Push out as much air as possible before sealing the bag.
  2. Prepare ice water in a bowl or container and submerge the plastic bag in the water for one hour. Normally the bag will float, so it must be weighed down with something.
  3. Remove the thawed tuna from the plastic bag and remove moisture with paper towels.
  4. Wrap the fish in clean paper towels, wrap with plastic over that and leave it in the refrigerator for about a day to mature.

After thawing, the meat of the tuna may have shrunk. This is called ‘chijire’. The reason for this is, after the tuna is caught, it is frozen before rigor mortis begins, so the rigor mortis process starts once the fish is thawed. Therefore, this is proof of freshness. The meat of tuna for which ‘chijire’ has begun is tough and isn’t yet matured. However, amateurs can’t tell if ‘chijire’ is happening or not. That’s why it’s better to let the fish mature in the refrigerator for half a day to one day. Please use these explanations for your own reference.


We hope this information will be helpful.

Revision date: October 2, 2020

The secret story of how Ikura became a sushi topping!

Between the time Edomae sushi was born (1810-1830) and around 1930, the toppings used in nigiri-sushi were strictly limited to slices of seafood. There were no so-called delicacy toppings (such as salmon roe and sea urchin, etc.).

However, in 1934, a restaurant in Ginza called Kyubey started a revolution. This restaurant is still synonymous with high-end sushi, but at that time many political and business people went there as well. Then, one night… Apparently one of the regular customers was tired of eating ordinary sushi and said to the chef, Hisaji Imada, “I want to eat some sushi that is more unusual. Ikura (Salmon roe) sounds like it would make good sushi,” as a joke. Imada, who took these words seriously, thought to himself, “But the roe would fall off if put directly on the shari (vinegar rice),” and racked his brain that night for a solution. Finally, he had an idea and said, “I know, I could just surround shari with seaweed and put salmon roe in it.” This is how the Ikura Gunkanmaki were born.

Next, when that customer came in again and Imada nervously served him his new Ikura sushi concept, it was received much better than expected. Gaining confidence from this reaction, Chef Imada put it on his regular menu. The story goes that rumors of the delicious taste spread and other sushi restaurants started to copy it. Then, the term “ikura gunkan-maki”(salmon roe battleship roll) was coined.

Nowadays, everything is used as battleship roll toppings from sea urchin to shirauo to negi-toro to mayonnaise and canned tuna-fish. It goes without saying that it all started with salmon roe.


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Revision date: September 25, 2020

What’s the trick to distinguishing which conveyor belt sushi restaurants are better?!

There is only one trick to distinguishing between conveyor belt sushi restaurants (kaiten-zushi), and that is to try eating the tuna as your first dish.

Why is that, you ask?

The most commonly used ingredient at kaiten-zushi is tuna. At kaiten-zushi, the tuna is imported and frozen nearly 100% of the time. The most famous is the Southern blue-fin tun, but you’ll also find Boston bluefin tuna, Canadian tuna farmed in fish preserves, inland sea tuna from Turkey and Spain, New Zealand offshore tuna, Atlantic tuna, etc. Also, the season of each type of tuna and the timing of high-volume catch differ, which makes the prices fluctuate greatly.

Therefore, the biggest task of a kaiten-zushi chain buyer is to decide where to import tuna from. Looking for high cost-performance, they watch fluctuations in the market every single day without fail, check the flavor in detail and constantly change the locality.

In other words, the chain restaurant purchaser’s efforts are concentrated on tuna. Restaurants that serve tuna that has lost its fat, is watery or rubbery, clearly either have a purchaser with a poor eye, or poor thawing skills. Therefore, if you are disappointed with that first tuna plate, then reign in your expectations for other toppings. On the other hand, if you enjoy the tuna then you’ll have a lot of other toppings to look forward to.


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Revision date: August 17, 2020

How to Make Sushi Rice for chirashi sushi!

The Michelin starred sushi chef taught us this recipe for the sushi rice of chirashi sushi, serving about 2 to 3 adults.

He gave out his hidden recipe, something that only a sushi chef can think of, and something you don’t see in those classic recipes. First, it might be hard to get at places like a supermarket, but he was telling us that using cane sugar (三温糖) and salt from burning seaweed (藻塩) would give great depth of flavor to sushi rice. If you can’t find them, regular sugar and salt for cooking will do. In addition to that, sushi vinegar on the market already contains sugar, salt and more, so make sure to get komezu (rice vinegar).

And if you would like to make it similar to the taste of a sushi restaurant, obtain Japanese short-grain rice, Koshihikari (コシヒカリ). Along with that, water for cooking rice should be Mineral water as well as soft water. Concentrations of dissolved calcium and magnesium in 1000 ml of water are indicated as numbers called “hardness”. By WHO standards, hardness below 120 mg/l is considered as soft water. If you can’t find it, try to choose Mineral water with the number as small as possible.

(Ingredients)

Rice:360cc

Komezu (rice vinegar):2 tbsp and 5 tsp

Cane sugar:1 tbsp

Salt:1 tsp and 1/2 tsp of which 1/2 tsp should be Salt from burning seaweed

Mineral water:340~350cc

 

The following are tips about cooking sushi rice.

  1. Place the rice into a bowl and pour Mineral water, and then mix it lightly. Leave it for about 10 minutes and let the rice soak the water.
  2. Wash the rice like swirling it gently, trying not to damage the surface of each grain of rice.
  3. After the rice is rinsed twice, transfer it into a strainer once and drain until it becomes whitish (about 30 minutes), and then it will be ready to cook .
  4. Cook rice with the amount of water 2 mm under the mark indicated by the rice cooker.
  5. Once the rice is cooked, let it steam for 10 minutes.
  6. While the rice is cooking, prepare awasezu by combining komezu, cane sugar , salt, and salt from burning seaweed and mixing thoroughly.
  7. Spread the rice on handai (飯台) or a tray, and distribute awasezu over shamoji (rice paddle) evenly over the rice.
  8. Use a slashing motion with shamoji and spread out sushi rice all over the tray.
  9. Cool down the surface of sushi rice by fanning, as a guide, to temperature you could feel the warmth slightly when you put your hands above the rice.
  10. To cool down the bottom of the sushi rice as well, flip the sushi rice with shamoji.
  11. Once the sushi rice is done, cover it with a damp kitchen towel. Don’t us e plastic wrap. If you don’t have a damp kitchen towel, use damp paper towel.
  12. When you make chirashi sushi, don’t push the sushi rice too hard to squeeze in a container. Try to put it in softly as if letting the air in.
  13. At last decorate toppings as you like. Use soy sauce on seafood to your liking.

We consider these extra efforts make a big effect on your result. Unique to the sushi chef, please try and follow the recipe as much as you can.


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Revision date: August 11, 2020

What is imitation crab?

One of the common ingredients of sushi rolls is imitation crab. In Japan this is called kanikama, in Europe it’s called surimi and in the US it’s also called fake crab.

I’m sure everyone reading this has tried it before, but what is imitation crab made of?

It seems kanikama was invented in Japan. In the early 1970s, Sugiyo, a fish paste manufacturer, in a failed attempt to developed artificial jellyfish, ended up with a product that had a texture exactly like crab and shifted development to that instead.

The “kani” of “kanikama” means “crab”. “Kama” is an abbreviation of kamaboko, which is boiled fish paste, fish sausage or fish cake. It’s official name is “crab-like kamaboko”. The main ingredient is minced fish meat mashed into paste. One of the white fish used is Alaska pollack. But it contains no crab. Incidentally, there is actual crab in the kanikama sold in the US and Europe.

It has now become a staple not only in sushi rolls, but also in sandwiches or on baguettes and even on takeout salads. It’s become even more popular than it is within Japan.

Related contents

http://www.viciunaigroup.eu/en

https://www.sugiyo.co.jp/


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Revision date: June 22, 2020

 

What’s the difference between Tobiko and Masago?

The tiny red balls around the outside of the rice on California rolls are tobiko (飛び子). Specifically, they are salted roe of flying fish and are known for the plump, crunchy texture. In fact, it is a registered trademark of a seafood processing company called Kanetoku, located in Hyogo prefecture, Japan. It isn’t hard to see that it’s an abbreviated version of the Japanese “Tobiuo no ko”.

Tobiko is rich in nutrients such as the minerals and vitamins potassium, phosphorus, vitamin E, vitamin C and niacin. Also, since it has a natural pigment composition called astaxanthin, which gives tobiko its bright color, it has antioxidative effects and is effective in strengthening the immune system.

What is flying fish?

Flying fish are found in the subtropical to temperate waters of the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Atlantic Ocean. They travel along the surface of the sea and eat zooplankton. Over 50 types of flying fish have been identified around the world. More than 30 of these have been identified in Japan, of which 4 types are used as food. Since the meat is white, low in fat, and has little odor, it is prepared in various ways such as sashimi, minced, grilled with salt, and fried. In Kyushu, flying fish is called “ago,” and it is dehydrated to be used as soup stock, called “dashi” in Japanese. Ago dashi has a refined and refreshing sweetness and a deep flavor, and it is considered to be on the higher-end of dashi stock.

The dorsal side of the flying fish is a vibrant dark blue, and the ventral side is silver The pectoral fin is considerably long at about 30-40 cm long. It uses it pectoral fins to fly over the water’s surface to escape from its natural enemies, such as tuna Depending on the breed, it can fly an average of 200 m in one go. The larger the species, the longer distance it can fly and the longest can be up to even 600 m. Furthermore, the flying fish has no stomach and its other digestive organs are short and straight, which makes its body lighter and ideal for extended flight.

Flying fish contains a lot of a nutrient called Niacin which can help prevent hangovers. Additionally, it is rich in vitamin E, which works to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the body, and as such is a good fish for preventing lifestyle-related diseases such as arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

On the other hand, an orange-colored tobiko is often seen at conveyor belt sushi restaurants, etc., but this is the roe of a fish called capelin (カペリン), which is similar to shishamo smelt. A salted version of this is used for sushi rolls in the US and other places, where it is called masago. Compared to tobiko, the grains are smaller and the texture is a bit chewier. It is mainly rich in EPA (Omega-3 fatty acids) and collagen.

Masago (真砂子)” actually means “fine sand” and therefore is used for foods that depict that image. In other words, it refers to broken up fish roe and doesn’t indicate a specific type of fish. Dishes made using capelin roe can be called masago, but please keep in mind that dishes with broken up tarako or kazunoko are also called masago.

What is capelin?

The shape of capelin is very similar to shishamo smelt, but the scales are very fine, barely visible to the eye. The body is a bluish silver color with an average length of 12-16 cm, but can grow up to 20 cm.

It is found in a wide area from the Arctic Ocean to the frigid sea regions and also migrates to the Sea of Okhotsk on the coast of Hokkaido. The time they spawn depends on the region. The season for Canadian capelin is June to mid-July, and the season for Icelandic and Norwegian capelin is mid-February to mid-March.

They are also known as Komochi Shishamo (Shishamo with child) and are known to have a wonderful balance of fat and roe. Compared to shishamo smelt, they are leaner and have a lighter texture. Shishamo smelt is not caught in great numbers, so capelin started to be imported as a substitute for it for Japanese homes and izakaya (Japanese bar/restaurants).

Capelin rush to the coastal area in large groups to lays eggs on the sandy bottom of the beach during spawning season. The amount of eggs it lays at one time is about 5,000 to 6,000. It has spherical, adhesive demersal eggs with a diameter of around 1 mm. The eggs hatch around spring tide about 2 weeks after spawning The total length of larvae immediately after hatching is 4-5 mm, and it is thought that they leave the coastal area by utilizing waves at high tide and reach a total length of around 10 cm in the first year of life.

Capelin is a healthy fish that can be eaten in its entirety, and boasts 7 nutrients (DHA, EPA, calcium, zinc, potassium, vitamin B2, collagen). Moreover, since the sugar content is only 0.5 g per fish, about 1/3 of the amount normally contained in fish, it is perfect for those who are dieting.

Tobiko and masago in Japan have probably been purchased at the Toyosu Market. They are not commonly found at normal grocery stores. This is because there are very few sushi restaurants that serve sushi rolls and they aren’t even made in homes often. Tobiko and masago are toppings available wholesale and used by places like conveyor belt sushi restaurants. Roe used for this is imported from Taiwan or Peru.

Finally, we’ll let you in on a not-so-pleasant secret. Flying fish and capelin roe are actually a light yellow or beige color. However, you’ll find it in bright red, orange, yellow and lately even green or black. Of course, these are colored by either natural pigments or synthetic coloring. Furthermore, tobiko is sometimes mixed with the cheaper capelin or herring roe. Unfortunately, food fraud is common in seafood products that are consumed in high quantities.


We hope this information will be helpful.

Revision date: August 3, 2020

The pros know that stress-free killing is the key to good flavor!

Ending a fish’s life without stress is the key to delicious flavor. When fish are left out in air, and die in agony it promotes rapid Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and increase in Inosinic acid. This is the worst way to kill a fish.

So what method can control the fish’s flavor or “umami”?

The delicious flavor of fish comes from the postmortem breakdown of ATP, which is the source of biological energy, and the generation of Inosinic acid, which is the component of the umami. Rigor mortis after the fish has died, progresses with the decomposition of ATP. When oxygen supply is cut off after death, energy required for muscles to move is no longer supplied, so flexibility of the muscles is lost and the body starts to contract. This is postmortem rigidity. This state depends on the fish, but it is the lowest point for flavor and after that the fish is managed at an appropriate temperature to increase the Inosinic acid.

This method has been the norm among sushi chefs who didn’t know about the mechanism that produces umami. Since long ago, the daily routine was to purchase fish that were killed first thing in the morning in the market, then increase the umami by keeping the fish in a refrigerator with a controlled temperature for 12 to 48 hours. Nowadays, the method has become common practice among fisherman, distributors and fish handlers at the market.

Now I will explain a number of methods that maintain peak flavor.

Ikezukuri means to take a fish that’s swimming in a tank at the restaurant, and immediately making sashimi after killing it, while the meat is still super fresh. In this state, there is no Inosinic acid, but there is quite a show with movement still in the fish and this preparation method gives the best-tasting texture.

Nojime* means using a massive amount of ice to suddenly reduce the temperature, resulting in death of the fish, either at the fishing site or at the local market. This method is used for small, cheaper mass-market fish that are caught in large amounts. Nojime starts with a reverse calculation for flavor from the day after fishing, but if the process isn’t thorough or there are any deficiencies, the fish won’t stay as fresh, so detailed care must be taken in temperature management.

Hamajime* means to cut the spinal cord at the production site, drain blood and spinal fluid, then pack in ice from afternoon the next day and wait for the peak flavor, which will be about two days later. That’s when the seafood is shipped to make it to make it to the consumer auction the next day. As time passes, inosinic acid is generated and the aim is to use the fish in sushi at peak flavor.

Ikejime is used so that the peak flavor will be reached during afternoon and evening business hours. The spinal cord of the live fish is cut and spinal fluid drained at the early morning market. This results is a firmness from the remaining ATP, and delicious flavor from the Inosinic acid that is generated as time passes. After some time has passed, even fish for which Ikejime is applied, can reach the same state as Hamajime if used after being refrigerated for one to two days, in order to maximize the Inosinic acid generated. Of course sushi chefs find their own balance of firmness in meat or added flavor, and incorporate this balance for the optimum combination with their shari in each piece of sushi.

Finally, maintaining freshness by using Ikejime, has become common practice overseas, and the term “Ikejime” has also become standard among the fishing industry. There are many websites that go into further detail on Ikejime, which you can reference from the links below.

*At markets in Japan, the term “kill” is not used for living fish, instead the word “shimeru” meaning to “close” or “tighten” is used. This expression is thought to have come from the sentiment of showing respect and appreciation for all living beings, not only humans.

Related Contents

http://fr.gaultmillau.com/news/premiere-poissonnerie-ikejime-a-paris

https://elisabethscotto.com/2016/02/27/ikejime/

https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/2018/12/18/le-poisson-ikejime-la-technique-ancestrale-venue-du-japon_a_23617381/

https://www.lemonde.fr/m-gastronomie/article/2017/04/27/l-ikejime-cet-art-japonais-qui-sublime-le-poisson_5118590_4497540.html

https://guide.michelin.com/sg/en/article/dining-out/what-is-ike-jime

https://www.1843magazine.com/food-drink/ikejime-a-humane-way-to-kill-fish-that-makes-them-tastier


We hope this information will be helpful.

Revision date: May 1, 2020

What is Jukusei sushi?

The fish used in sushi is generally salted or soaked in vinegar then matured for a number of days while the umami Inosinic acid component increases. This is called “Jukusei” (aging). Sushi made with toppings that have been aged in this way are called “Jukusei sushi”. The aging period depends on the type, individual size and origin of each fish, and some are even aged for over four weeks. However, the preparations are not only difficult and time-consuming, the discolored parts and inedible parts must be trimmed, so these toppings tend to be expensive. If gone too far, the Inosinic acid converts to hypoxanthine and rots. The ability to make this judgment is important. In the end, Jukusei is an evolved version of the culture of “maturing toppings” which existed in Edo-style Sushi.

How to Jukusei? (How are sushi ingredients matured?)

In order to mature seafood, after completing advance preparations (removing the head and internal organs then washing thoroughly; all blood must be removed), more than adequate considerations must be made for the fat content of the fish and management of the bodily fluids. Specifically, this includes processes like dry aging at a low temperature, removing moisture using salt, utilizing enzymes and fermentation, wet aging by putting the item in a vacuum pack, and wrapping in aging sheets, which were developed thanks to Foodism. These processes may be used alone or in combination, whichever process is most suitable for the fish.

In the initial stage of ‘jukusei’ (maturing), the increase in inosinic acid (the umami component) improves the taste. After that the inosinic acid starts to decrease, and once the long-term maturing stage (two weeks or more) starts, free amino acids such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid really start to affect the flavor. This has all been learned in research.

Let’s take a look at specific aging methods.

For example, for white flesh fish, a somewhat high amount of salt is sprinkled on the fish before it is stored in a refrigerator set at 3 to 4℃ with a humidity of at least 85%. The fish is not wrapped at this time. The fish is flipped over 3 to 4 times a day so that the moisture is extracted evenly. Several days later, the salt on the surface of the body and the body fluids that have seeped out are washed off with water (or thin saltwater). The fish is then wrapped in paper towels and then plastic to avoid contact with the air, and it is stored in a refrigerator at 1 to 2℃. Once the chef deeps the fish is ready, it is trimmed. Excess moisture is removed and then the maturing process continues.

We would like to take this time to point out that fish like Tai (Red seabream) and Buri (Japanese amberjack) are clearly more delicious when matured. However, when farmed tai and farmed hamachi are matured, the scent of the feed they were raised on comes out, so these are better eaten fresh, as sashimi, instead of maturing.

Blue-backed fish like Aji (Horse mackerel) and Iwashi (Japanese sardine) are also not suitable for maturing. Blue-backed fish lose their freshness quickly and judging the maturity is extremely difficult. Furthermore, if the fish is matured without sufficient advance preparations, bacteria breed in the remaining blood and organs. This may cause food poisoning.

These fish can be matured using the following method. The fish is put in salt-ice (water cooled with ice and salt) as soon as it is caught. It is sent to the sushi restaurant in this state and left in the refrigerator to rest for several days. Unfortunately, what happens after this is apparently a trade secret.

The easiest method is to wrap in an aging sheet and put it in the refrigerator. After that the chef trims the fish, checking the state of it. An aging sheet is a cloth made from purely breeding a ‘mold’ that is harmless to the human body, and putting cultures of its recovered spores into the cloth. Originally, it is intended to be used to age meat, but it’s just started to be used for seafood too.

Finally, in a method used for ages by sushi chefs, the akami and toro (tuna) portion are taken out and the chiai* portion is removed to be matured. This is then wrapped in paper towels, put into a plastic bag in order to prevent drying out, then put into the refrigerator to rest. The temperature setting is the most important part of this process and, obviously, this is an industry secret. The chef needs to check the state of the tuna (for example whether the white lines are soft and whether the oil has risen), and any discolored portion is trimmed. After that it is refrigerated. This process is then repeated.

*“Chiai (血合い)” is the part with the most veins, so it is a dark red color. It has a strong odor of blood and has multiple times the acidity of the lean meat, so it is not used as a sushi topping.

Related Content

https://guide.michelin.com/en/article/features/%E4%B9%BE%E5%BC%8F%E7%86%9F%E6%88%90%E9%AD%9A

https://www.foodandwine.com/cooking-techniques/dry-aged-fish-joint-sherman-oaks


We hope this information will be helpful.

Revision date: June 2, 2020

 

What makes a “good” sushi restaurant?

It is probably cutting fish just before serving. For a big size fish, keep its skin on the meat during the process of preparing and cutting into half, and at every serving use sogigiri* as much as customers eat. Protected by the skin, the fish flesh will expose to air for the first time as it is cut. The skin blocks the oxidation process significantly because the fat in fish centers right  under the skin in general. Needless to say, even with any amazing fish, it loses flavor if the fat gets oxidized.

*Sogigiri-A method of cutting which makes a slice thinner with a greater surface, by holding the knife diagonally and cutting in line with the cutting board. Usually used for white fish with firm flesh because it is easier to be eaten when served thin.

Hirazukuri-A method of cutting which gives thickness to each slice so that the texture of sashimi can be enjoyable. This is used for akami like tuna.


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Revision date: April 1, 2020

What are side dishes at sushi restaurants?

A side dish at a sushi restaurant is a wonderful experience. It’s best when they serve seasonal sashimi, grilled items, or sake and fish that are fit well in sushi restaurants, but some places serve dishes that are easily mistaken as the main dish, such as deep sea bass hot pot. Eating an exaggerated dish like that doesn’t leave much room for sushi. Side dishes at sushi restaurants are only meant to be an appetizer to the sushi. A sushi restaurant that serves small dishes that don’t fill you up, but help tickle your appetite, transitioning into the sushi pieces, is a good restaurant.


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Revision date: March 2, 2020

A technic to freeze tuna is quite amazing!

Once tuna caught in the open sea is processed by draining its blood on the ship, it is flash-frozen at ultra-low temperatures (-60℃). Ultra-low temperatures stops the enzymatic hydrolosis of protein, oxidation of fat and cultivation of microorganisms so it can be stored over a long period of time. The process can prevent discoloration for over two years and maintain a freshness worthy of being served as sashimi. Therefore, skillful sushi restaurants mature the thawed tuna in the refrigerator for about one week to attain the perfect balance of umami and change in color.


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Revision date: February 4, 2020

Are Hamachi and Buri the same thing?

In the United States and other countries, “buri : right image” is called yellowtail, but this word refers to fish like “buri” and “hiramasa” and actually can be applied to a large number of fish. Actually, it isn’t far off since a layman can’t tell the difference between a “buri” and “hiramasa” just by the pretty yellow lin on the side of the fish’s body.

In Japan, “buri” is the most well-known fish that goes by different names depending on its stage in life (shusse fish). Actually “buri” has many different names even depending on the region you are in. For example, in the Kanto region, it may be called wakashi (0 to 30 cm) , Inada (30 to 60 cm) , Warasa (60 to 80 cm) , Bri (80 cm or more), and from Kansai on further west, it is called, tsubasu (0-30 cm), Hamachi (30- 60 cm), mejiro (60 to 80 cm) or burri (80 cm or more).

This is where the term “hamachi” came from West of Kansai, full-grown buri, at about 30 to 60 cm is called Hamachi. In other words, Hamachi is a young buri.

Of course, it’s not that simple. You can get hamachi sashimi at grocery stores all over Japan, all year long. Hamachi is not only used from Kansai on westward, it is also used at grocery stores throughout Japan. This may lead you to believe that hamachi is a different fish and not the same as buri, but you would be mistaken.

Behind the curtain, buri cultivation is thriving in Japan (and throughout the world). More than 80% of the buri on the market is said to be farmed. Because it is not apparent by appearance whether the buri was raised in the wild or by aquaculture, the wild-raised fish is called buri by market affiliates in order to make it easier to understand. That means farmed products have come to be called hamachi.

Also, in the Setouchi region, people preferred to eat the young hamachi rather than the adult buri. Kagawa Prefecture became the first in the world to successfully cultivate hamachi in 1928, and that is what led ‘hamachi’ to become synonymous with ‘farmed fish’. Of course, that would be one reason that people call farmed buri, hamachi.

As an aside, three cousins (closely related species) of buri are often used as sushi toppings in sushi restaurants. In the Fish Name Dictionary, the translations of these cousins are Goldstriped amberjack (Hiramasa : right image), Greater Amberjack (Kanpachi), and Japanese amberjack (Buri). Sushi University also adopts these terms.

But if you dive deeper into the fish name dictionary,
Hiramasa is known as amberjack or yellowtail or hiramasa kingfish. Kampachi is known as amberjack or yellowtail. Buri is known as… you guessed it: amberjack or yellowtail.

When lumping them all together, they are called yellowtail, as is common in the U.S.

I’m sure you’re interested in the price, and while the price of the seasonal winter buri varies, it is generally around $10-20 per kilogram. Since there is very little distribution of hiramasa, the price is said to be about double that of buri. The price of kampachi : right image is somewhere between that of buri and hiramasa. These prices refer to the wild-caught fish.

Finally, if you eat and compare buri, kampachi and hiramasa in sashimi form, most people can’t tell the difference in fat distribution. When made into sushi (buri sushi, hamachi sushi, hiramasa sushi, kampachi sushi), the sweetness of the fat and the flavor of the fish emerge splendidly, and the taste of each fish becomes distinct and obvious. Even the still-developing inada, with very low fat content, is used as a sushi topping and its refreshing taste is unforgettable. This showcases both the depth and greatness of Edomae (Edo Style) sushi.


We hope this information will be helpful.

Revision date: April 24, 2020

Why do they say that the quality and price of tuna is determined by the processing after the fish is caught?

Why is only tuna brought into certain ports high-priced, even though all of the tuna is caught in the seas near Japan? This is because the level of stress caused to the fish when it is caught has a huge impact on the quality, including taste, color and texture. In other words, the same fish may be delicious or taste unpleasant depending on how the fisher handles the fish directly after catching it. Naturally, everyone ends up wanting the fish from the ports with fisherman who are skilled in this practice*. Furthermore, it is individuals who process the fish. The quality changes drastically depending on who caught it.

*This is a method of cutting off the medulla oblongata and aorta of a fish, essentially keeping the body alive while killing the fish. There is also a method of inserting a thin wire, like a piano wire, into the backbone. This technique paralyzes the nerves while at the same time suppressing the putrefied substance that comes from the spinal cord. Using the ikejime method extends the time until rigor mortis starts, and makes it easier to maintain freshness, while at the same time preventing raw fish odor and damage to the body by inserting a butcher knife into the base of the tail to drain the blood and keep oxidized blood from running throughout the body.


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Revision date: December 17, 2019

What is the ideal temperature for sushi toppings?

Tokyo Health Centers stipulate that refrigerated cases where sushi toppings are stored should be kept at 5℃ or lower. This is to maintain the temperature of the toppings at below 10°C at which point bacterial growth is slowed.

However, sushi chefs will remove the topping from the refrigerator and leave it standing out for a while (in the case of tuna, the fat will melt at around 23℃). They do this because if the topping is cold, it becomes difficult to taste the essential nature of the fish. The temperature of the shari is best at human skin temperature (around 36℃) to maximize the taste and sweetness of the rice. However, the ideal temperature differs very slightly depending on the topping.

For example, conger eel which is often lightly grilled or prepared in another, similar way, should have a slightly higher temperature (around 42℃) than the shari, and kuruma prawn, which are boiled, should be the same temperature as the shari.

Overseas, there are laws that state that sushi must be served at 10℃ or lower. This ignores that sushi is best enjoyed at skin temperature. Serving it straight out of the refrigerator makes it no better than purchasing takeout sushi from the supermarket.


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Revision date: November 18, 2019

When does Kinmedai taste the best?

No one is more sensitive to the changing of the seasons than sushi lovers. This must be because the taste of sushi toppings is directly tied to the seasons. There are terms to describe this such as Hashiri (early season), Peak (in-season) and Holdover, and using these words to understand what state the sushi topping is in allows you grasp and enjoy the various different flavors. There is nothing that says a sushi topping is less delicious because it has a lower fat content.

For example, everyone wants to get in there and be the first eat early season toppings. It’s obvious that these would all be toppings with low fat content. But early-season toppings have a liveliness that you can’t find in other foods, and some believe that eating these types of food will give you new vitality.

Once a fish is in peak-season, we eat it as sushi. This is because the fish has grown as it approaches breeding season, gradually gaining more fat, and at this stage in its development it has a richer flavor.

And the ‘holdover’ perhaps means that since the season is about to end, we need to get our fill now. While we may feel a bit sad that the season is ending, we can look forward to it coming around again the next year.

On the other hand, there are sushi toppings that don’t seem to fit into the seasons, although the seasonal dishes are one of the important reasons that Japanese food was registered under UNESCO World Heritage.

Those are deep sea fish such as Largehead hairtail, Japanese bluefish, Pollack and Splendid alfonsino.

Deep sea fish live at least 200 m below the surface of the ocean. For example, Splendid alfonsino lives at a depth of between 100 to 800 m deep, so it would generally be thought of as in-season in the winter when it has the highest fat content. However, except just before and after spawning season, the flavor of the Splendid alfonsino doesn’t change much throughout the year. Therefore, even high-end sushi restaurants always keep it in the topping case and it’s a popular choice.

Therefore, Splendid alfonsino is never actually “in-season”.

Since very little light reaches the deep sea, the water temperature remains more or less constant. In other words, there aren’t really seasonal (temperature) changes. The concept of season may not exist there.

Even so, you can think of it as especially delicious in the winter between December and February, when it has a higher fat content. Otherwise you might start to think of it as a fish that is “in-season” all year round, like salmon, and that just doesn’t feel quite as splendid.


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Revision date: October 28, 2019